The 3 horizons in lean innovation portfoliomanagement

In this article we will cover the 3 horizons of innovation. We will link these horizons to lean innovation portfoliomanagement. Next to this, we will introduce two new canvas models: the Horizons Canvas and the Horizons Portfolio Canvas.

The ‘Three horizons framework’ was originally published by Baghai, Coley et al (2000)[1] and has been an important model for growth, change and innovation ever since.

The original model is focused on growth. The model offers a framework to look to the future without losing the context of today. Core idea is that a company is working on activities simultaneously in all three horizons. Only in this way continuous, long term growth can be achieved.

The 3 horizons

H1: Horizon 1

Horizon 1 is about the current way of doing things. It is the stuff where the company is known for, and where profits and cash flows stem from. In Horizon 1 innovation does take place, but this innovation is more about continuing, improving and extending the current business lines. We do this in a planned and orderly fashion, we minimalise risks and uncertainties.[2] Next to this we continuously improve our performance, keep costs low and maximise value.

H3: Horizon 3

Horizon 3 is the future. How would the future look like if you could start all over again, without any legacy? What would you do if you could take into account all new exciting technologies and other developments? Developments in this horizons are potentially disruptive, but at a minimum revolutionary.

H2: Horizon 2

Horizon 2 is in between. This is why we discuss this horizon last. In horizon 2 we have developments that are way beyond the scope of horizon 1, and that are already incorporating a bit of the long term vision of what will happen in the future. Developments however are real and take place today. An entrepreneurial mindset is required, at the same time people can learn and benefit from experiences in the past.

A different perspective

Thinking from the perspective of the three drie horizons also helps to see where we stand as a human being. Do I enjoy working on actual, real-life business or am I more a dreamer? Bill Sharpe speaks about three voices: the H1 manager that must ensure business-as-usual is running, the H2 entrepreneur trying new stuff and the H3 visionary creating opportunities from his imagination. The good news is: companies need all types to be successful in the long run.

Lean innovation portfolio management

In my previous blog I have described what lean innovation portfolio management is. In this blog I have discussed Steve Blank’s [3] model.

lean innovation portfolio management

Source Steve Blank

This model links lean innovation and the three horizons. Horizon 1 is about process innovation, or execution of the current business model.

Horizon 2 is about business model innovation. This means that certain elements of your existing business model are changed (for example new target group, new distribution channel, new income model), which may result in other elements of your business model that need to adapt.

Horizon 3 is both an unknown market and an unknown solution. These are new business models that potentially disrupt the existing ones. So this is revolution.

Practical approach to portfoliomanagement

In our approach to portfoliomanagement we build on the model of Steve Blank. We have seen that listing all innovation initiatives and linking this to the best fitting horizon gives a good overview of what is going right and wrong in a company in the innovation domain.

Together with DOON we have developed some practical canvasses. We are currently testing these canvasses, your feedback is very much appreciated as well.

Horizons canvas

3 horizons canvas

The first canvas is called the ‘Horizons Canvas’. We have renamed the three horizons as following:

H1: Improve

H2: New

H3: Revolution

We then divide in 3 boxes based on Design Thinking:

Define: Initiatives in this box are not much more than an idea, maybe a concept.

Design: Initiatives in this box are in designing stage, a business model is being developed, initial tests will start in this stage.

Develop: Based on the learnings of previous stages, initiatives in this box are already being developed.

Try for yourself

Draw the 9 boxes of this canvas on a flipover and write down all your (innovation) projects on a post-it (1 project per post-it). Paste the post-it in the right box. This will give a first indication about balance/ unbalance within the current portfolio.

Horizons portfolio canvas

3 horizons portfolio canvas

The second canvas is the ‘Horizons Portfolio Canvas’. Objective of this canvas is to identify whether there is a (mis)match between strategy and current project portfolio.

Try for yourself

First, think/ agree on how you would ideally divide 100% innovation budget over the three horizons.


Improve: 70%
New: 20%
Revolution: 10%

Now take the previous canvas. Note per project (from design stage, if acknowledged as a project) the total project budget on the post-it and past in the right box with projects. Calculate the total. Now you can calculate the percentage for alle three horizons.


Improve: 95%
New: 5%
Revolution: 0%

Now subtract the desired percentage of the real percentage. Result is the mismatch per area.


Improve: 70% – 95% = -/- 25%
New: 20- 5% =  15%
Revolution: 10% – 0% = 10%

In this example we see that there is too much focus on H1: Improve. And too little focus on H2 and H3.

Now what?

The above example is not accidental. We see many companies focusing on H1. They innovate quite substantially but it is more of the same. The problem is that the riskier and immature ideas required for H2 and H3 have to compete for budget with H1 projects. And they will loose this battle. For this reason it is wise to create separate portfolios for H1, H2 and H3. For every portfolio other decision criteria and new product development processes are used. This enables a fair comparison.

So a first step could be to start with this. Then, in the gate meetings you will make sure that H2 and H3 get a fair chance to be able to proceed. And you will have a critical look at your current H1 portfolio. Are all projects worth the while? Because often we see that as soon as an idea has become a project, this project will be delivered no matter what. If you apply portfoliomanagement in a healthy way, you would also kill initiatives.

Feedback asked

We really would like to have your opinion about the canvasses. Better yet, what have you learned doing this exercise? In case of questions, please let us know!

You can contact us through info@pimcy.nl

We appreciate your feedback!

Join our community of Product/ Project Portfolio Management enthusiasts! The Portfolio Management Circle (https://lnkd.in/bPXbaPK) is a group for professionals dealing with or interested in project/product portfolio management (PPM). Our goal is to increase awareness and improve the knowledge and importance about PPM by sharing experience and challenges that one is facing in organizations with a focus on the Netherlands and Belgium. We now have created a Slack community (portfoliocircle.slack.com) as well. We invite you to join and share this message with fellow enthusiasts. Just leave your emailaddress below. We are looking forward to meet you both online and offline!

Joyce Oomen is founder of Pimcy and helps companies accelerate in innovation by among others advising and implementing  lean innovation and product portfolio management.

[1] Baghai, M., Coley, S., et al. (2000). The alchemy of growth: practical insights for building the enduring enterprise, San Francisco, CA: Perseus Publishing.

[2] Sharpe, Bill. Three Horizons and working with change (jan 2014)

[3] https://steveblank.com/2015/06/26/lean-innovation-management-making-corporate-innovation-work/